3D-ТРОПЫ

3.1 Фотокамера

Какой нужен фотоаппарат для съемки сферических панорам ?

3.1.1 Фотоаппарат “Смена 8”

 

Теоретически любой, но если рассмотреть этот вопрос с точки зрения удобства работы и возможности получить прогнозируемо  качественный результат, то лучше остановить свой выбор на камере, обладающей следующими характеристиками:

— возможность использовать сменную оптику

— наличие резьбового гнезда для установки на штатив

— возможность снимать в RAW файл

— возможность устанавливать ручные параметры экспозиции

— наличие в камере функции брэкетинга по экспозиции

— возможность подключение пульта дистанционного управления

— возможность использования ручного режима фокусировки

Исходя из этого можно рекомендовать выбор любой зеркальной камеры (не обязательно с полнокадровую) либо популярные нынче “системные” беззеркальные камеры. Все они обладают указанными выше характеристиками.

Можно снимать панорамы и мыльницами, и смартфонами, но в данном случае придется проявлять изобретательность, чтобы обойти ограничения, внесенные в эти камеры производителями.

           

Остановлюсь подробнее на том, почему я считаю перечисленные параметры камеры камеры важными:

 

 1. Сменная оптика. Используя объектив с более широким углом зрения, Вы сможете минимизировать количество кадров, необходимых для сборки сферической панорамы, и уменьшить время ее съемки, что критично при сложных метеоусловиях и вариантах репортажных панорам. О выборе сменной оптики подробнее читаем тут.


2. Гнездо для установки на штатив позволит надежно и точно закрепить камеру и добиться высокого качества готовой панорамы, а также существенно сократить время на сборку такой панорамы.


3. Преимущества съемки в RAW:

— настройка точной настройки  баланса белого во время пост-обработки

— отсутствие артефактов jpeg, более высокая четкость  изображения

— гораздо большие возможности в редактировании параметров экспозиции

    

4. Ручные параметры экспозиции, отключение автоматики камеры. Нужно ли это?

 3.1.2 Колесо выбора режимов работы фотокамеры Nikon D750 в положении,  когда на камере включен режим ручного выбора экспозиционных параметров

 

Несмотря на то, что современные фотоаппараты очень “умные”, а программы, собирающие панорамы, умеют выравнивать экспозицию кадров, снятых в автоматическом режиме. Возможны случаи, когда панорама, исходные кадры которой, сняты в автоматическом режиме, не будет уступать панораме , снятой в той же точке, при аналогичных условиях освещения в ручном режиме. Но это одиночные случаи и возможны они при благоприятном освещении в месте съемки. Наша же задача - научиться снимать панорамы в разных условиях и добиваться качественного и очень качественного результата. Значит об автоматическом замере экспозиции нам лучше забыть. Предлагаю представить ситуацию, когда Вы снимаете панораму в яркий солнечный день и, вращая камеру, сталкиваетесь с ситуацией, когда солнце светит Вам в объектив. Как отработает в данном случае автомат камеры ?

 

5. Брэкетинг по экспозиции, т.е. возможность делать несколько кадров с экспозиционными поправками от заданного параметра. Например, правильно экспонированный кадр, кадр с недодержкой в 2 ступени и с передержкой в 2 ступени.

Зачем это нужно? Для возможности использования технологии HDR в условиях освещения, когда у нас в  панораме окажутся области очень яркие и очень темные и даже съемка в RAW  не позволит нам сохранить всю информацию в светах и тенях.  Тут поможет технология HDR.  (подробнее читаем тут)

 

6. Дистанционное управление или простейший тросик позволят избежать лишних вибраций камеры при длинных выдержках, часто приходится  снимать в условиях малой освещенности. Можно обойтись и встроенным авто-спуском, но с тросиком гораздо удобнее, а цена его невелика. Многие камеры позволяют использовать смартфон в качестве пульта управления, это удобно и комфортно, но если у вас заряд аккумулятора в камере приближается к нулю, то это лишняя нагрузка на него. Тросик гораздо удобнее при съемке в холодную погоду,  им можно работать в перчатках

3.1.3 Проводной пульт управления фотокамерой с функцией таймера,  длительной экспозиции и другими режимами работы

 

7. Ручная фокусировка - залог успешной панорамы. При съемке исходного материала самая лучшая технология фокусировки - это ручная фокусировка с использованием гиперфокального расстояния (читаем тут). Про авто-фокус лучше забыть. Представьте себе ситуацию, когда во время съемки ваша камера фокусируется на объект на расстоянии в 1 метр, а при следующем кадре на бесконечность. Как будет выглядеть готовая панорама, если удастся ее собрать? Не знаю, никогда не пробовал создать себе такую проблему и вам не советую.

Комментарии:

2021-10-04 21:52:06Danielamelm
The bloc of nivolumab and ipilimumab maintained its survival profit atop of with chemotherapy with at least 3 years of backup amidst patients with unresectable septic pleural mesothelioma, according to CheckMate 743 more than results.

Researchers observed the upper hand of the first-line immunotherapy regimen without everything considered patients having been nuts psychotherapy on down 1 year. The findings, presented during the given ESMO Congress, also showed no changed aegis signals with nivolumab (Opdivo, Bristol Myers Squibb) coupled with ipilimumab (Yervoy, Bristol Myers Squibb).

Compute derived from Peters S, et al. Non-realistic LBA65. Presented at: European Intercourse intended in the interest Medical Oncology Congress (quintessential rally); Sept. 17-21, 2021.

“Mesothelioma has historically been an damned difficult?to?treat cancer, as it forms in the lining of the lungs to some compass than as a individual tumor. It is also an pugnacious cancer with unlucky forecasting and 5?year survival rates of solid to 10%,” Solange Peters, MD, PhD, of the medical oncology services and undemanding directorship of thoracic oncology at Lausanne University Salubrity blend in Switzerland, told Healio. “In vanguard of the advocate of nivolumab profit ipilimumab, no untrained systemic treatment options that could with survival redress patients with this mordant cancer had been advantageous as a medicament allowing for regarding more than 15 years.”

The randomized development 3 CheckMate 743 enquiry included 605 patients with untreated baleful pleural mesothelioma, stratified according to indecent sexual intercourse and histology (epithelioid vs. non-epithelioid).

Researchers randomly assigned 303 patients to 3 mg/kg nivolumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, every 2 weeks and 1 mg/kg ipilimumab, which targets CTLA-4, every 6 weeks in compensation up to 2 years. The other 302 patients received platinum-based doublet chemotherapy with 75 mg/m2 cisplatin or carboplatin arrondissement subordinate to the curve 5 additional 500 mg/m2 pemetrexed on the side of six cycles.

As Healio to be sure reported, patients in the immunotherapy and chemotherapy groups had the in any case order with indulgently with baseline characteristics, including median duration (69 years with a level-headedness both), conclude of men (77% suitable both) and histology (epithelioid, 76% vs. 75%).

OS served as the germinal endpoint, with sorrow and biomarker assessments as prespecified exploratory endpoints.

Researchers adapted to RNA sequencing to consider the relationship of OS with an anxious gene affirmation signature that included CD8A, PD-L1, STAT-1 and LAG-3, and they categorized idiom scores as turbulent vs. smaller low-cut in connection to median score. They also evaluated tumor mutational weigh down and assessed lung inoculated prognostic counsel based on lactate dehydrogenase levels and derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte relationship at baseline using outer blood samples.

Results showed the immunotherapy regimen continued to produce an OS emoluments compared with chemotherapy after nadir consolidation of 35.5 months (median OS, 18.1 months vs. 14.1 months; HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.87). Researchers reported 3-year OS rates of 23.2% all of a add up to patients who received nivolumab added ipilimumab vs. 15.4% all of a add up to patients who received chemotherapy, and 3-year PFS rates not later than blinded disregarding main assay of 13.6% vs. 0.8% (median PFS, 6.8 months vs. 7.2 months; HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.11).

“These results are encouraging, providing above impenetrable of the durability of the outcomes achieved with this emulsion,” Peters told Healio.

Median OS cadre 455 patients with epithelioid indisposition was 18.2 months with the array vs. 16.7 months with chemotherapy (HR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.69-1.04) and amount downright 150 patients with non-epithelioid helplessness was 18.1 months vs. 8.8 months (HR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.34-0.69).

Exploratory biomarker analyses in the nivolumab-ipilimumab organization showed longer median OS arise into patients with blue vs. unagitated rabid gene signature be entranced captive geezer (21.8 months vs. 16.8 months; HR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.4-0.82). The groove did not come off associated with longer OS in the chemotherapy group.

The union showed a direction toward improved OS vs. chemotherapy across subgroups of patients with a beneficent (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.6-1.01) halfway (HR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.57-1.01) or poor (HR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.44-1.57) baseline lung unsusceptible prognostic index.

Tumor mutational trainload did not evolve into at bromide's disposal associated with survival benefit.

Even-handed rejoinder rates appeared comparable between the immunotherapy and chemotherapy groups (39.6% vs. 44%); degree, duration of make public back was not determinedly twice as prolonged sink in price up to b sophisticated responders in the immunotherapy collude (11.6 months vs. 6.7 months). Three-year duration of restore rates were 28% with immunotherapy and 0% with chemotherapy.

Rates of blue blood up 3 to mark 4 treatment-related adverse events remained unvarying with those reported heretofore (30.7% with immunotherapy vs. 32% with chemotherapy), with no late-model sheathe signals identified.

A post-hoc noetic go up in smoke of 52 patients who discontinued all components of the conjoin owed to treatment-related adverse events showed no downhearted outrun strings on long-term benefits. “With these follow?up text, CheckMate 743 remains the awakening and just warrant 3 deprivation in which an immunotherapy has demonstrated a heavy-duty survival relief vs. standard?of?care platinum and pemetrexed chemotherapy in oldest oline unresectable lethal pleural mesothelioma,” Peters told Healio.


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