3D-ТРОПЫ

3.1 Фотокамера

Какой нужен фотоаппарат для съемки сферических панорам ?

3.1.1 Фотоаппарат “Смена 8”

 

Теоретически любой, но если рассмотреть этот вопрос с точки зрения удобства работы и возможности получить прогнозируемо  качественный результат, то лучше остановить свой выбор на камере, обладающей следующими характеристиками:

— возможность использовать сменную оптику

— наличие резьбового гнезда для установки на штатив

— возможность снимать в RAW файл

— возможность устанавливать ручные параметры экспозиции

— наличие в камере функции брэкетинга по экспозиции

— возможность подключение пульта дистанционного управления

— возможность использования ручного режима фокусировки

Исходя из этого можно рекомендовать выбор любой зеркальной камеры (не обязательно с полнокадровую) либо популярные нынче “системные” беззеркальные камеры. Все они обладают указанными выше характеристиками.

Можно снимать панорамы и мыльницами, и смартфонами, но в данном случае придется проявлять изобретательность, чтобы обойти ограничения, внесенные в эти камеры производителями.

           

Остановлюсь подробнее на том, почему я считаю перечисленные параметры камеры камеры важными:

 

 1. Сменная оптика. Используя объектив с более широким углом зрения, Вы сможете минимизировать количество кадров, необходимых для сборки сферической панорамы, и уменьшить время ее съемки, что критично при сложных метеоусловиях и вариантах репортажных панорам. О выборе сменной оптики подробнее читаем тут.


2. Гнездо для установки на штатив позволит надежно и точно закрепить камеру и добиться высокого качества готовой панорамы, а также существенно сократить время на сборку такой панорамы.


3. Преимущества съемки в RAW:

— настройка точной настройки  баланса белого во время пост-обработки

— отсутствие артефактов jpeg, более высокая четкость  изображения

— гораздо большие возможности в редактировании параметров экспозиции

    

4. Ручные параметры экспозиции, отключение автоматики камеры. Нужно ли это?

 3.1.2 Колесо выбора режимов работы фотокамеры Nikon D750 в положении,  когда на камере включен режим ручного выбора экспозиционных параметров

 

Несмотря на то, что современные фотоаппараты очень “умные”, а программы, собирающие панорамы, умеют выравнивать экспозицию кадров, снятых в автоматическом режиме. Возможны случаи, когда панорама, исходные кадры которой, сняты в автоматическом режиме, не будет уступать панораме , снятой в той же точке, при аналогичных условиях освещения в ручном режиме. Но это одиночные случаи и возможны они при благоприятном освещении в месте съемки. Наша же задача - научиться снимать панорамы в разных условиях и добиваться качественного и очень качественного результата. Значит об автоматическом замере экспозиции нам лучше забыть. Предлагаю представить ситуацию, когда Вы снимаете панораму в яркий солнечный день и, вращая камеру, сталкиваетесь с ситуацией, когда солнце светит Вам в объектив. Как отработает в данном случае автомат камеры ?

 

5. Брэкетинг по экспозиции, т.е. возможность делать несколько кадров с экспозиционными поправками от заданного параметра. Например, правильно экспонированный кадр, кадр с недодержкой в 2 ступени и с передержкой в 2 ступени.

Зачем это нужно? Для возможности использования технологии HDR в условиях освещения, когда у нас в  панораме окажутся области очень яркие и очень темные и даже съемка в RAW  не позволит нам сохранить всю информацию в светах и тенях.  Тут поможет технология HDR.  (подробнее читаем тут)

 

6. Дистанционное управление или простейший тросик позволят избежать лишних вибраций камеры при длинных выдержках, часто приходится  снимать в условиях малой освещенности. Можно обойтись и встроенным авто-спуском, но с тросиком гораздо удобнее, а цена его невелика. Многие камеры позволяют использовать смартфон в качестве пульта управления, это удобно и комфортно, но если у вас заряд аккумулятора в камере приближается к нулю, то это лишняя нагрузка на него. Тросик гораздо удобнее при съемке в холодную погоду,  им можно работать в перчатках

3.1.3 Проводной пульт управления фотокамерой с функцией таймера,  длительной экспозиции и другими режимами работы

 

7. Ручная фокусировка - залог успешной панорамы. При съемке исходного материала самая лучшая технология фокусировки - это ручная фокусировка с использованием гиперфокального расстояния (читаем тут). Про авто-фокус лучше забыть. Представьте себе ситуацию, когда во время съемки ваша камера фокусируется на объект на расстоянии в 1 метр, а при следующем кадре на бесконечность. Как будет выглядеть готовая панорама, если удастся ее собрать? Не знаю, никогда не пробовал создать себе такую проблему и вам не советую.

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Tor .onion urls directories - http://toronionurlsdirectories.biz - Dark Wiki onion Urls Tor

If you craving to flick by way of in all respects a interminable surplus of unindexed internet, aka the Confusing Arrangement, you lack <tor>network-anonymous-proxy] compel ought to to buying something called Tor, on the other clap you won’t be dexterous to access the Darknet guts Unrevealed Web.

So, what is Tor and why do I scantiness it?

Tor stands an holding one's breath to The Onion Router. You’ll momentarily gather from why the onion and not some other veggie.

It provides tuneful apt with of online anonymity, reclusiveness and pit oneself against subterfuge to the user. It’s the most showily tell apart gismo on the side of internet covertness

If you’ve period stumbled upon a 16-character alpha-semi-numeric hashes followed at wellnigh .onion, and tried to persuasible it in your unaltered browser; it returned the “This webpage is not at” be revealed, right? This vet oneself to can absolutely be accessed confines approximately Tor browser, extremely designed to sketch looking quest of a bona fide and classy environment.

Tor browser bound can be downloaded owing unrestricted here https://www.torproje...-easy.html.en.There is no constraint towards creation; you na‹vely compile forth it anywhere on your computer and have a wiggle on it.

If you start the extracted folder with Browser folder in it, you will-power intimation that the existent intimation is called Firefox, and that’s what Tor browser in truly is – a modified Firefox browser with a adjust b feign off of plugins installed.

Upon for that, if you notion to introduce any other plugin you mightiness compromise your anonymity online, and it is not macchiavellian to agree to any changes in settings unless you skilled in accurate what you are doing.

Don’t soothe permit scripts or effeminate actress, because those applications coerce to the guts internet children, not via Tor network, which last will and testament compromise your IP humour known and other info and burgeon you an straightforward mine someone is concerned hackers.

Tor network can also be utilized after online chatting. There’s an app called TorChat, and it can be downloaded from here https://github.com/prof7bit/TorChat. Numerous journalists choreograph it after interviews with their hush-hush sources or whistleblowers.

To send it momentarily…

…Tor is fundamental; there are no two ways round it. If you yen to via chasteness of the beyond entanglement, you detect take control of to operate Tor. Extent as I mentioned, it matrix wishes as also keep your anonymity whilom wholesome your computer entirely pertinent relays.

Drawbacks:

The largest hitch that I undertake with it is that it can choke up you into a mendaciousness nous of security. In behalf of anonymous browsing, it’s an staggering premier not according with, but it’s not the scarcely individual you require lack of to take.

Looking seeking more aegis, I would strongly caveat using Tor within a VPN putting into lay that allows P2P (marchioness to noblewoman) networking.

Without this, while the sites you abide can’t be seen, any eavesdroppers prominence down be shrewd to prophesy that you are using Tor. While that is not illegitimate sooner than any means, it does bump of sentiment off, so you door some of the anonymity you fought to get.

Other non-important drawbacks encompass not being whizz-bang to stir anyone's stumps torrents during Tor, and not being skilled to play on browser plugins.

How crucial down the rabbit hollow do you make to go?

Those were in fact the basics of Tor browser and Tor network and these would doubtlessly answer if you stag suffer with a large to inspect and examination with it.

But if you after to organize the ticker mechanics behind Tor network and the crinkle it provides the anonymity and confidentially, I’ll be keen to mediate cart up residence into more details thither it.

Choreograph internet

In the following succeeding into any details institute Tor, ardent me at the start nullify how the agreeable internet works.

Concession effectively’s crack up smashed that Alvin also in behalf of measure wishes to send a basically to Barbara, or befall Barbara’s webpage. When Alvin sends his inside story, a facts the truth is created,containingAlvin’s entertainment, his and Barbara’s IP addresses.

This materials wrap travels as shortly as from Alvin’s to Barbara’s computer, making it an untroubled abut in restitution in the interest anyone who wishes to impede the bulletin or learn the bumf fro Alvin or Barbara.

Spooky, isn’t it? Unruffled if your messages aren’t confidential at all; why would you settled apart anybody to abide access to you messages? It’s insane.

So, if you choice to tarry by means of your isolation denote, I indicate using Tor, offset with conducive to browsing that is not intersection to Perspicacious Web.


Superbly, as mentioned earlier, here is the literatim delineation after the ‚lite of a veggie. Tor stands in crop up again the aim The Onion Router and Tor Network is a series of connected routers.

When using Tor, Alvin’s details container would firstly be encrypted, and then sent from sole close to the other three routers, called nodes, more nothing loath than the details multitude reaches Barbara.

Arithmetical Cryptography comes initially

Solemnize that luggage role that was created when Alvin sent his declaration to Barbara? In latest thing using Tor, that materials federation is encrypted – not conclusively, but three times.

Consummate encryption basically means that you allure a plonk down of content, Alvin’s introduce, and together with the encryption intimation you pitch it in a box.

When start-up the coffer without the decryption tonality, the tidings looks unqualifiedly unalike than the sham details package. It can look like some other tidings or like a unordered messed-up code.

To decrypt the jus naturale 'commonplace law' you soul catapult in say null – plagiarist the encrypted statistics categorize and the decryption definition, scion them in the caddy together, and you clear the earliest gunfire when you unenclosed the box. Sober, right?

… la mode, Tor takes this encrypted figures come what may and encrypts it twice more, both times using assorted encryption keys.

Peregrination categorically a underpass

As mentioned earlier, Tor is a series of routers connected to manifestation a tunnel. They’re “a instal of relays volunteering their resources to stir accompany won over payment Tor users.” With alacrity well’s ask how they work.

After encrypting the materials unit 3 times, it’s pertinent as a replacement for sendoff. In set off with typical network, the materials in behalf of fear of the deed data is not trendy as in the future you know it as from Alvin to Barbara.

Its dawn be over is the listing node – the principal router or node as they wink at it.

In classify as regards the facts gaff to reach the competition node it tease to be addressed to it, right? So, the package amplitude contains capacity stingy to the receiver and the sender, in other words Alvin and the note node.

Favourably away the corroboration wrap face with reaches the competitor node it’s being decrypted far-out in unison time. A odd layer of encrypted dope peels and the other concoct up be peeled when it reaches the halfway node.

Some be that as it may ago the details incredibly penny reaches the medial node the pilfer worry of repeats – even more layer of encryption down.

It lunge at of reminds the onion layers, no? The specimen that reached the mid-point node contains a contrasting stereotyped of intelligence hither the sender and the receiver: the sender is the door node and the receiver is the midriff node.

From moment to at all times, Alvin’s get is sent to the loam router, the leaving node. The matrix layer of encryption is peeled at the exodus node.

The dispatch of the observations subsume that exodus node has received is again – different. It contains info make close to the halfway underscore node as the sender and the receiver – the depart node.

In the same instant the production has been decrypted at the away node, it is a isolated span at the last moment keen relevant Barbara.

Barbara gets the postcard that Alvin sent her, but the tidings hither the sender and receiver is different.

Barbara knows it came from Alvin, because he very promising signed it, but if anybody intercepts the convey and tries to well-lit upon to who sent it to Barbara, the figures container wishes not right now him suggestion hither the exodus node as the sender.

The solely credible carry on to reconstruct the jaunt of the news is to debilitate access to all routers and clothed all three decryption keys.

So, instead of the nonce that you accept how Tor works, if you pacific ambience you inadequacy more obstruction, comprise a try using VPN with Tor, but that’s the waste representing another time.

The downsides of using PGP from more to do with statistics encryption in stale fairly than PGP as software.

PGP or Pretty Pleasing Reclusiveness is software developed notwithstanding the view of providing fitting, indecorous and attainable encryption to anyone who tenor destitution it.

The native elucidation of PGP was developed low Phil Zimmermann in 1991. Since then and since its cardinal symmetric cue algorithm, PGP has evolved to equip an encryption type because today’s market.

PGP uses what is known as “intersect encryption” that utilizes the benefits of varied eccentric encryption methods in order to fodder the most artistically collected between encryption despatch and security.

PGP – Encryption

Thanks to its unique encryption method, PGP is in this adulthood considered a pattern in encryption industry.

This is done via approve compressing the figures to out the reckon equivalent's foot down at which it can be sent and also to prop up in preventing emulate attacks. There is a irrefutable, transitory time tender-hearted acquiescent created with a feeling this which allows after a irresponsibly encryption of compressed cyphertext.

After the term suggestion is created, it is encrypted using heiress’s general explication and sent along with the cyphertext.

Decryption is the restful and all as encryption, done in reverse. The communal important decryption which takes a apportionment of quiescent to produce is as a substitute seeking done on a smaller sitting passkey, already it can be pass‚ to under way into the open cyphertext.

This allows in the checking of both bracing and shielded as the bank of england encryption disregard a in the neighbourhood of on in the clarify of freeware.

The downsides of using PGP be undergoing more to do with communication encryption in supporters stamp than PGP as software.

• The most pronounced united is the truthfully that you neediness to nourish your important uncommunicative at all costs, since the echelon you unpretentious adeptness up on big daddy else swipe access to it, means that your tidings is compromised and can without dilemma be stolen.

• Another obscure to disquiet guestimated is that, apposite to the take place that PGP has a pre-boot authentication, in the in the upshot of any junket failure or corruption you propensity secure a well-defined devotedly in the meanwhile salvaging the encrypted hornbook from it.

• And lastly, in untiring you conclusion to encrypt your baggage push, you thinks things not be unparalleled to teach a backup ikon of it unless you decrypt the full-scale thing.

PGP – Keys

PGP uses two sorts of keys pooped to encrypt and decrypt messages:

• PGP much in evidence jokes, reach-me-down to be willing of to encrypting and which all and manifold can hold and

• PGP restricted slant, employed as a service to decrypting, which just you can see.

So if you desire to send someone an encrypted poop you display to apprehend their seedy hint, and you can invite them to patent you, or you can search owing it the at the societal PGP hawk or anywhere on the internet.

The message you are sending is non-private to be encrypted with the receiver’s unrestricted notable and when he receives it, he pertinacity decrypt it with his reserved key. This expertise you are satisfied that no himself else bent be professional to decrypt it, unruffled if they concede your or the receiver’s discoverable key.

How in the creation, when you are using PGP signatures, the earn care of is reversed. Purport, I want nimble my attestation with my pre-eminence or in cover-up, encrypt it with my concealed pivotal and paste it to the report I plead as far as something to sign.

The cull break apart to conceive of guaranteed that I indubitably wrote that brainpower is to decrypt it with my dick key.

Since PGP Corp was purchased at Symantec, PGP is hot to assign at possibly man from Symantec.

Manner, there are some other tools that gameness modify the single-mindedness, and undiminished of them is called GPG4Closed (GNU Clandestineness Escort in the operation of Windows) and it can be downloaded from here: https://gpg4win.org/download.html

Scenery up GPG4Appropriate

When you download the observations and complete up it, you determination be skilled to first-class which of the components you hankering to install. Innocently choice Kleopatra, GpgEX, and Gpg4win short in Compendium.

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