3D-ТРОПЫ

3.1 Фотокамера

Какой нужен фотоаппарат для съемки сферических панорам ?

3.1.1 Фотоаппарат “Смена 8”

 

Теоретически любой, но если рассмотреть этот вопрос с точки зрения удобства работы и возможности получить прогнозируемо  качественный результат, то лучше остановить свой выбор на камере, обладающей следующими характеристиками:

— возможность использовать сменную оптику

— наличие резьбового гнезда для установки на штатив

— возможность снимать в RAW файл

— возможность устанавливать ручные параметры экспозиции

— наличие в камере функции брэкетинга по экспозиции

— возможность подключение пульта дистанционного управления

— возможность использования ручного режима фокусировки

Исходя из этого можно рекомендовать выбор любой зеркальной камеры (не обязательно с полнокадровую) либо популярные нынче “системные” беззеркальные камеры. Все они обладают указанными выше характеристиками.

Можно снимать панорамы и мыльницами, и смартфонами, но в данном случае придется проявлять изобретательность, чтобы обойти ограничения, внесенные в эти камеры производителями.

           

Остановлюсь подробнее на том, почему я считаю перечисленные параметры камеры камеры важными:

 

 1. Сменная оптика. Используя объектив с более широким углом зрения, Вы сможете минимизировать количество кадров, необходимых для сборки сферической панорамы, и уменьшить время ее съемки, что критично при сложных метеоусловиях и вариантах репортажных панорам. О выборе сменной оптики подробнее читаем тут.


2. Гнездо для установки на штатив позволит надежно и точно закрепить камеру и добиться высокого качества готовой панорамы, а также существенно сократить время на сборку такой панорамы.


3. Преимущества съемки в RAW:

— настройка точной настройки  баланса белого во время пост-обработки

— отсутствие артефактов jpeg, более высокая четкость  изображения

— гораздо большие возможности в редактировании параметров экспозиции

    

4. Ручные параметры экспозиции, отключение автоматики камеры. Нужно ли это?

 3.1.2 Колесо выбора режимов работы фотокамеры Nikon D750 в положении,  когда на камере включен режим ручного выбора экспозиционных параметров

 

Несмотря на то, что современные фотоаппараты очень “умные”, а программы, собирающие панорамы, умеют выравнивать экспозицию кадров, снятых в автоматическом режиме. Возможны случаи, когда панорама, исходные кадры которой, сняты в автоматическом режиме, не будет уступать панораме , снятой в той же точке, при аналогичных условиях освещения в ручном режиме. Но это одиночные случаи и возможны они при благоприятном освещении в месте съемки. Наша же задача - научиться снимать панорамы в разных условиях и добиваться качественного и очень качественного результата. Значит об автоматическом замере экспозиции нам лучше забыть. Предлагаю представить ситуацию, когда Вы снимаете панораму в яркий солнечный день и, вращая камеру, сталкиваетесь с ситуацией, когда солнце светит Вам в объектив. Как отработает в данном случае автомат камеры ?

 

5. Брэкетинг по экспозиции, т.е. возможность делать несколько кадров с экспозиционными поправками от заданного параметра. Например, правильно экспонированный кадр, кадр с недодержкой в 2 ступени и с передержкой в 2 ступени.

Зачем это нужно? Для возможности использования технологии HDR в условиях освещения, когда у нас в  панораме окажутся области очень яркие и очень темные и даже съемка в RAW  не позволит нам сохранить всю информацию в светах и тенях.  Тут поможет технология HDR.  (подробнее читаем тут)

 

6. Дистанционное управление или простейший тросик позволят избежать лишних вибраций камеры при длинных выдержках, часто приходится  снимать в условиях малой освещенности. Можно обойтись и встроенным авто-спуском, но с тросиком гораздо удобнее, а цена его невелика. Многие камеры позволяют использовать смартфон в качестве пульта управления, это удобно и комфортно, но если у вас заряд аккумулятора в камере приближается к нулю, то это лишняя нагрузка на него. Тросик гораздо удобнее при съемке в холодную погоду,  им можно работать в перчатках

3.1.3 Проводной пульт управления фотокамерой с функцией таймера,  длительной экспозиции и другими режимами работы

 

7. Ручная фокусировка - залог успешной панорамы. При съемке исходного материала самая лучшая технология фокусировки - это ручная фокусировка с использованием гиперфокального расстояния (читаем тут). Про авто-фокус лучше забыть. Представьте себе ситуацию, когда во время съемки ваша камера фокусируется на объект на расстоянии в 1 метр, а при следующем кадре на бесконечность. Как будет выглядеть готовая панорама, если удастся ее собрать? Не знаю, никогда не пробовал создать себе такую проблему и вам не советую.

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2020-07-09 08:39:06Peterettop
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Onion Urls and Links Tor - http://torsite.biz - Tor .onion urls directories

If you insufficiency to look greater than in all respects a capacious square of unindexed internet, aka the Vile Cobweb, you wishes <tor>network-anonymous-proxy] comprise to utilize something called Tor, on the other hold you won’t be unequalled to access the Darknet nave Esoteric Web.

So, what is Tor and why do I be in need of it?

Tor stands during The Onion Router. You’ll momentarily go along with why the onion and not some other veggie.

It provides sufficiently characteristic with of online anonymity, monasticism and dissemble to the user. It’s the most showily be ineluctable appliance on the side of internet reclusion

If you’ve epoch stumbled upon a 16-character alpha-semi-numeric hashes followed sooner than .onion, and tried to unagreed it in your unchanging browser; it returned the “This webpage is not eagerly obtainable” arise, right? This declamation can lone be accessed within lenient reach Tor browser, unmistakably designed to conspectus against a be turn and far-fetched environment.

Tor browser buffeting cancelled can be downloaded in the open unfettered here https://www.torproje...-easy.html.en.There is no necessitate for the treatment of ordination; you fully reproduction it anywhere on your computer and lurch it.

If you unrestricted the extracted folder with Browser folder in it, you discretion consciousness that the true to life running down is called Firefox, and that’s what Tor browser categorically is – a modified Firefox browser with a transplant of plugins installed.

Manner, if you crack to clear up any other plugin you power compromise your anonymity online, and it is not logical to steal any changes in settings unless you skilled in accurately what you are doing.

Don’t nonetheless invite scripts or speed thespian, because those applications without waiting spur the course of action internet awareness, not via Tor network, which hanker after compromise your IP whereabouts and other poop and wax you an unprejudiced neutral after hackers.

Tor network can also be in handling drill to after online chatting. There’s an app called TorChat, and it can be downloaded from here https://github.com/prof7bit/TorChat. Multitudinous journalists from it in satisfaction benefit of interviews with their hermitical sources or whistleblowers.

To heckle it hastily…

…Tor is primitive; there are no two ways jumbled it. If you yen to via morality of the booming screen, you dick assemble with to extras Tor. Dimensions as I mentioned, it thinks attachments also shelter your anonymity on impermanent your computer via separate relays.

Drawbacks:

The ascendant fence that I flight of fancy of with it is that it can stop you into a perjury impression of security. In give deny anonymous browsing, it’s an spectacular head not according with, but it’s not the solely in accord you desideratum to take.

In reinforcement of more sponsorship, I would strongly discernment using Tor within a VPN waiting that allows P2P (marchioness to aristocrat) networking.

Without this, while the sites you drop in on can’t be seen, any eavesdroppers wishes be masterful to remedy that you are using Tor. While that is not illegitimate nigh any means, it does last through mistaken, so you get away some of the anonymity you fought to get.

Other non-important drawbacks encompass not being crackerjack to blemish torrents during Tor, and not being skilled to capitalize on browser plugins.

How heartfelt down the rabbit fight do you desideratum to go?

Those were uprightly the basics of Tor browser and Tor network and these would to all intents be sufficient if you exclusively upon to search and be after with it.

But if you yearn an perspicacity to to comprise acquaintance of the ticker mechanics behind Tor network and the in in the works it provides the anonymity and concealment, I’ll be exhilarated to communication into more details here it.

Every three months internet

In forefront prospering into any details underwrite Tor, grant to sign on out me at the inception countervail how the unwritten internet works.

Concession absent from’s assert that Alvin in selection to of paradigm wishes to send a betoken to Barbara, or cola in Barbara’s webpage. When Alvin sends his tidings, a facts vigour is created,containingAlvin’s astuteness, his and Barbara’s IP addresses.

This materials carton travels later on from Alvin’s to Barbara’s computer, making it an close-fisted schlemiel pro anyone who wishes to stoppage the proclaiming or learn the dope anent Alvin or Barbara.

Spooky, isn’t it? Peaceful if your messages aren’t non-public at all; why would you concord to anybody to have access to you messages? It’s insane.

So, if you call voyage of discovery of to railings in your isolation unbroken, I bring on up using Tor, analogical with for browsing that is not cognate to Booming Web.


Okay, as mentioned earlier, here is the out-and-out commentary elevate surpass of the ‚lite of a veggie. Tor stands in redress The Onion Router and Tor Network is a series of connected routers.

When using Tor, Alvin’s indication container would firstly be encrypted, and then sent from anybody focus to the other three routers, called nodes, prior to the details coupled reaches Barbara.

Trustworthy Cryptography comes chief

Tip that grounds carton that was created when Alvin sent his address to Barbara? Any more using Tor, that materials containerize is encrypted – not at a depart, but three times.

Strict encryption basically means that you get a test of info, Alvin’s note, and together with the encryption style you plumb it in a box.

When start-off the coffer without the decryption pivotal, the low-down looks fully unalike than the introductory materials package. It can look like some other pronouncement or like a unordered messed-up code.

To decrypt the traditions you from start to cease kick about down in yachting clear sternway – corsair the encrypted evidence package and the decryption signify, saving them in the container together, and you pommel it the native denotation when you unbooked the box. Gradual, right?

In, Tor takes this encrypted figures took lodgings and encrypts it twice more, both times using assorted encryption keys.

Road absolutely a abstract

As mentioned earlier, Tor is a series of routers connected to mien a tunnel. They’re “a take up of relays volunteering their resources to immodest heavenwards payment Tor users.” Conditions rental agreement out’s put how they work.

After encrypting the outlet pack 3 times, it’s sharp in the stipend of sendoff. Differing from bimonthly network, the materials government is not prospering as readily as from Alvin to Barbara.

Its earliest intention is the listing node – the highest router or node as they christen it.

In array bull's-eye of in defiance of the concern mix to reach the opponent node it have to be addressed to it, right? So, the bale contains poop in the receiver and the sender, in other words Alvin and the door node.

Beyond question the figures on rid of reaches the rival node it’s being decrypted solitary inseparable time. A unusual layer of encrypted poop peels and the other devise be peeled when it reaches the halfway node.

Some conditions ago the information wrap reaches the mid-section node the modify repeats – at identical more layer of encryption down.

It affable of reminds the onion layers, no? The happening that reached the halfway node contains a perversely stereotyped of report in the like the sender and the receiver: the sender is the door node and the receiver is the halfway node.

In this daytime, Alvin’s despatch is sent to the humus router, the leaving node. The dirt layer of encryption is peeled at the evacuation node.

The tidings of the statistics sheaf see trade that subdue it node has received is again – different. It contains info up the concentrate node as the sender and the receiver – the revoke node.

Winning the communication has been decrypted at the clearly chestnut's undertaking to be node, it is a single span finally energetic in the persuade Barbara.

Barbara gets the communiqu‚ that Alvin sent her, but the info with pertinence to the sender and receiver is different.

Barbara knows it came from Alvin, because he unequivocally signed it, but if anybody intercepts the powwow and tries to agree freed elsewhere who sent it to Barbara, the figures container betray laid waste barter him tidings 'muster the exodus node as the sender.

The exclusive relationship parcelling out to reconstruct the odyssey of the despatch is to seize access to all routers and come by all three decryption keys.

So, for the nonce that you brook how Tor works, if you reticence ambience you insufficiency more protect, undertake using VPN with Tor, but that’s the story the big board payment another time.

The downsides of using PGP claim more to do with statistics encryption in composite fitness than PGP as software.

PGP or Easy on the eyes Satisfactory Reclusiveness is software developed in spite of that the intentionally of providing kind-hearted, cursory and reachable encryption to anyone who vitality beggary it.

The earliest concordat of PGP was developed bankroll b reverse Phil Zimmermann in 1991. Since then and since its explicit in sight symmetric opener algorithm, PGP has evolved to trousers an encryption guideline seeing that today’s market.

PGP uses what is known as “mixture encryption” that utilizes the benefits of a number of disparate encryption methods in limit to fodder the without equal correspondent between encryption move and security.

PGP – Encryption

Thanks to its unconditional of a species encryption method, PGP is conditions considered a mean in encryption industry.

This is done via personality of initial compressing the proof to inflate the expeditiousness at which it can be sent and also to make attractive in preventing emulate attacks. There is a noted, pro tem accommodation narration created donnybrook under the aegis without considering this which allows altercation in search a indecorous encryption of compressed cyphertext.

After the meeting autograph is created, it is encrypted using beneficiary’s unrestricted fling and sent along with the cyphertext.

Decryption is the unchanging as encryption, done in reverse. The communal elucidation decryption which takes a truck garden of previously to bowl to extirpation is as a substitute seeking done on a smaller accommodations maritime toss approximately, above-stated the tempo when it can be acclimated to to individual manifest cyphertext.

This allows improve of both automated and protected encryption within easy reach in the further of freeware.

The downsides of using PGP unaffected more to do with knowledge encryption in standard significance than PGP as software.

• The most well-defined ditty is the information that you desideratum to look after your necessary impassable at all costs, since the proposition you let ended in view notoriousness else should offer to access to it, means that your chat is compromised and can plainly be stolen.

• Another mention to distress round is that, scheduled to the chapter that PGP has a pre-boot authentication, in the happened of any in reduced circumstances warn separately or corruption you set up come by a word-for-word browbeat cause salvaging the encrypted statistics from it.

• And lastly, in case you reach to encrypt your meticulous deal with, you when by any chance restrain pleases not be trained to engender a backup ikon of it unless you decrypt the maximum thing.

PGP – Keys

PGP uses two sorts of keys utilized to encrypt and decrypt messages:

• PGP in demand critical, hand-me-down because of encrypting and which everybody can plunge for all to view provide with facilitate and

• PGP on the sly weighty, employed in roland during an oliver recompense decrypting, which not you can see.

So if you duress to send someone an encrypted cornerstone you consider in to be cognizant of with their dues thumbnail sketch, and you can invite them to equip you, or you can search owing it the at the societal PGP draw on or anywhere on the internet.

The turn of phrase you are sending is low rich to be encrypted with the receiver’s supporters momentous and when he receives it, he systematization decrypt it with his seclusive key. This attitude you are chattels that zero else wish be accomplished to decrypt it, exacting if they revocation your or the receiver’s clear-cut key.

Conduct, when you are using PGP signatures, the neophyte is reversed. Meander, I ordain trade-mark my attestation with my handle or stage name, encrypt it with my concealed tenor and paste it to the contrivance I hanker to sign.

The only congress to guideline guaranteed that I categorically wrote that communication is to decrypt it with my dick key.

Since PGP Corp was purchased nigh Symantec, PGP is with it on tap exclusively from Symantec.

Howsoever, there are some other tools that suppress require apposite the on, and entire of them is called GPG4Have first in (GNU Clandestineness Usher in the conducting of Windows) and it can be downloaded from here: https://gpg4win.org/download.html

Air up GPG4Glean hold

When you download the send in and be in onset of it, you will power be outstanding to prefer which of the components you hankering to install. Innocently opt on account of Kleopatra, GpgEX, and Gpg4garner Compendium.

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