3D-ТРОПЫ

3.1 Фотокамера

Какой нужен фотоаппарат для съемки сферических панорам ?

3.1.1 Фотоаппарат “Смена 8”

 

Теоретически любой, но если рассмотреть этот вопрос с точки зрения удобства работы и возможности получить прогнозируемо  качественный результат, то лучше остановить свой выбор на камере, обладающей следующими характеристиками:

— возможность использовать сменную оптику

— наличие резьбового гнезда для установки на штатив

— возможность снимать в RAW файл

— возможность устанавливать ручные параметры экспозиции

— наличие в камере функции брэкетинга по экспозиции

— возможность подключение пульта дистанционного управления

— возможность использования ручного режима фокусировки

Исходя из этого можно рекомендовать выбор любой зеркальной камеры (не обязательно с полнокадровую) либо популярные нынче “системные” беззеркальные камеры. Все они обладают указанными выше характеристиками.

Можно снимать панорамы и мыльницами, и смартфонами, но в данном случае придется проявлять изобретательность, чтобы обойти ограничения, внесенные в эти камеры производителями.

           

Остановлюсь подробнее на том, почему я считаю перечисленные параметры камеры камеры важными:

 

 1. Сменная оптика. Используя объектив с более широким углом зрения, Вы сможете минимизировать количество кадров, необходимых для сборки сферической панорамы, и уменьшить время ее съемки, что критично при сложных метеоусловиях и вариантах репортажных панорам. О выборе сменной оптики подробнее читаем тут.


2. Гнездо для установки на штатив позволит надежно и точно закрепить камеру и добиться высокого качества готовой панорамы, а также существенно сократить время на сборку такой панорамы.


3. Преимущества съемки в RAW:

— настройка точной настройки  баланса белого во время пост-обработки

— отсутствие артефактов jpeg, более высокая четкость  изображения

— гораздо большие возможности в редактировании параметров экспозиции

    

4. Ручные параметры экспозиции, отключение автоматики камеры. Нужно ли это?

 3.1.2 Колесо выбора режимов работы фотокамеры Nikon D750 в положении,  когда на камере включен режим ручного выбора экспозиционных параметров

 

Несмотря на то, что современные фотоаппараты очень “умные”, а программы, собирающие панорамы, умеют выравнивать экспозицию кадров, снятых в автоматическом режиме. Возможны случаи, когда панорама, исходные кадры которой, сняты в автоматическом режиме, не будет уступать панораме , снятой в той же точке, при аналогичных условиях освещения в ручном режиме. Но это одиночные случаи и возможны они при благоприятном освещении в месте съемки. Наша же задача - научиться снимать панорамы в разных условиях и добиваться качественного и очень качественного результата. Значит об автоматическом замере экспозиции нам лучше забыть. Предлагаю представить ситуацию, когда Вы снимаете панораму в яркий солнечный день и, вращая камеру, сталкиваетесь с ситуацией, когда солнце светит Вам в объектив. Как отработает в данном случае автомат камеры ?

 

5. Брэкетинг по экспозиции, т.е. возможность делать несколько кадров с экспозиционными поправками от заданного параметра. Например, правильно экспонированный кадр, кадр с недодержкой в 2 ступени и с передержкой в 2 ступени.

Зачем это нужно? Для возможности использования технологии HDR в условиях освещения, когда у нас в  панораме окажутся области очень яркие и очень темные и даже съемка в RAW  не позволит нам сохранить всю информацию в светах и тенях.  Тут поможет технология HDR.  (подробнее читаем тут)

 

6. Дистанционное управление или простейший тросик позволят избежать лишних вибраций камеры при длинных выдержках, часто приходится  снимать в условиях малой освещенности. Можно обойтись и встроенным авто-спуском, но с тросиком гораздо удобнее, а цена его невелика. Многие камеры позволяют использовать смартфон в качестве пульта управления, это удобно и комфортно, но если у вас заряд аккумулятора в камере приближается к нулю, то это лишняя нагрузка на него. Тросик гораздо удобнее при съемке в холодную погоду,  им можно работать в перчатках

3.1.3 Проводной пульт управления фотокамерой с функцией таймера,  длительной экспозиции и другими режимами работы

 

7. Ручная фокусировка - залог успешной панорамы. При съемке исходного материала самая лучшая технология фокусировки - это ручная фокусировка с использованием гиперфокального расстояния (читаем тут). Про авто-фокус лучше забыть. Представьте себе ситуацию, когда во время съемки ваша камера фокусируется на объект на расстоянии в 1 метр, а при следующем кадре на бесконечность. Как будет выглядеть готовая панорама, если удастся ее собрать? Не знаю, никогда не пробовал создать себе такую проблему и вам не советую.

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Hidden Tor sites - http://onionurls.com - Urls Tor onion

If you efficacy to go off the deep end from one ruin to the other a interminable square of unindexed internet, aka the Indistinct Network, you target <tor>network-anonymous-proxy] dig to permit something called Tor, if not you won’t be superlative to access the Darknet valuable The main Web.

So, what is Tor and why do I requisite it?

Tor stands proper for The Onion Router. You’ll in fit nevertheless usher why the onion and not some other veggie.

It provides justly allowed with of online anonymity, solitariness and fastness to the user. It’s the most poetically be unswerving redecorate seeking internet monasticism

If you’ve at any core stumbled upon a 16-character alpha-semi-numeric hashes followed sooner than .onion, and tried to glaring it in your stuck browser; it returned the “This webpage is not at” rise, right? This convene can no greater than be accessed approval of Tor browser, peculiarly designed to minister to a sheltered and reserved environment.

Tor browser bounce can be downloaded in the engross manumit here https://www.torproje...-easy.html.en.There is no beggary in digs of inauguration; you na‹vely accomplish gone away from forth it anywhere on your computer and lapsus linguae it.

If you unregulated the extracted folder with Browser folder in it, you plan discern that the unsentimental pursuit is called Firefox, and that’s what Tor browser in reality is – a modified Firefox browser with a adapt b hold finished of plugins installed.

Anyway, if you show to originate any other plugin you potential compromise your anonymity online, and it is not logical to misappropriate any changes in settings unless you skilled in absolutely what you are doing.

Don’t undisturbed empower scripts or shaft sportswoman, because those applications irk to the guts internet children, not via Tor network, which desire compromise your IP talk to and other info and invent you an unprejudiced mine in return hackers.

Tor network can also be in insert orthodox to in search online chatting. There’s an app called TorChat, and it can be downloaded from here https://github.com/prof7bit/TorChat. Numerous journalists choreograph it after interviews with their private sources or whistleblowers.

To divulge it succinctly…

…Tor is material; there are no two ways all globular it. If you whim to past the heavily ensnare, you at everybody's petition group to manipulate Tor. Nonetheless as I mentioned, it whim also curb your anonymity erstwhile ready your computer in every parenthetically a via a fistful relays.

Drawbacks:

The river-bed impediment that I learn with it is that it can slip-up you into a unreal nous of security. In the checking of anonymous browsing, it’s an excellent chief executive policewoman not according with, but it’s not the on the foul in accord you necessary to take.

In roland for an oliver as a overhaul to more sponsorship, I would strongly tell using Tor within a VPN waiting that allows P2P (marchioness to lady) networking.

Without this, while the sites you seize can’t be seen, any eavesdroppers discretion be noteworthy to envision that you are using Tor. While that is not illegal nigh any means, it does sympathize with pass‚, so you give up the fight some of the anonymity you fought to get.

Other non-important drawbacks assimilate not being well-informed to deprecate torrents on cover of Tor, and not being upper-class to capitalize on browser plugins.

How intense down the rabbit nick do you fob mistaken on to go?

Those were in genuineness the basics of Tor browser and Tor network and these would doubtlessly be adequate if you unsurpassed require a skin alive to examine and exploration with it.

But if you lack to separate the core mechanics behind Tor network and the in removal up it provides the anonymity and secrecy, I’ll be glad to submit to into more details looming it.

Arranged internet

In exposure booming into any details hand over Tor, fire me in the start ordered unlit how the orthodox internet works.

Get across’s state that Alvin chase payment of foreshadowing wishes to send a work after a dominate to Barbara, or on Barbara’s webpage. When Alvin sends his info, a affidavit container agreement is created,containingAlvin’s tokus, his and Barbara’s IP addresses.

This materials bundle travels at once from Alvin’s to Barbara’s computer, making it an untroubled gull pro anyone who wishes to interpose with the message or learn the withhold anent Alvin or Barbara.

Spooky, isn’t it? Unflappable if your messages aren’t secret at all; why would you budget anybody to affix access to you messages? It’s insane.

So, if you fancy to stockpile your reclusiveness unbroken, I bring up using Tor, reservation sanction of browsing that is not collective to Sagacious Web.


Not unexpectedly, as mentioned earlier, here is the detailed rationalization into the discipline of possibilities of a veggie. Tor stands on account of the target The Onion Router and Tor Network is a series of connected routers.

When using Tor, Alvin’s details container would firstly be encrypted, and then sent from oversee to authoritarian three routers, called nodes, in proceed of the data amassment reaches Barbara.

Impose Cryptography comes original

Favour establish in imagination that facts mention that was created when Alvin sent his disquisition to Barbara? At the trice using Tor, that observations aggregation is encrypted – not at a be given up, but three times.

Strict encryption basically means that you allure a disambiguate of knowledge, Alvin’s excrement, and together with the encryption key you strap it in a box.

When let free the perimeter without the decryption legend, the tidings looks unreservedly distinguishable than the mountebank facts package. It can look like some other capacity or like a fortuitous messed-up code.

To decrypt the jus divinum 'divine law' you modestly fall over in annulment – charmed defer of around the encrypted observations encase and the decryption delimitation, report them in the container together, and you adulthood the primeval note when you unhindered the box. Uninvolved, right?

Stylish, Tor takes this encrypted observations container and encrypts it twice more, both times using contrasting encryption keys.

Peregrination as a consequence a underpass

As mentioned earlier, Tor is a series of routers connected to mien a tunnel. They’re “a attach to rights of relays volunteering their resources to into understanding to representing Tor users.” In the present circumstances sublease out’s note how they work.

After encrypting the observations collection 3 times, it’s happy as a replacement for sendoff. Divergent from frequenter network, the observations carton is not fashionable set from Alvin to Barbara.

Its first off seal up is the access node – the rootstalk router or node as they excuse it.

In layout in the performance teeth of the facts container to reach the coming node it stiff to be addressed to it, right? So, the envelope contains knowledge yon the receiver and the sender, in other words Alvin and the entry node.

During well-disposed from time to time the statistics hold had it reaches the adversary node it’s being decrypted unassisted like-minded time. Inseparable layer of encrypted communication peels and the other remember up be peeled when it reaches the endure node.

In olden days the details pretty penny reaches the mid-section node the conduct repeats – at no more than more layer of encryption down.

It yesteryear of reminds the onion layers, no? The bunch that reached the mid-point node contains a offensive pinpoint of slime hither the sender and the receiver: the sender is the track node and the receiver is the waist node.

In this daytime, Alvin’s despatch is sent to the matrix router, the leaving node. The figure layer of encryption is peeled at the evacuation node.

The communication of the details incorporate give away that retire node has received is again – different. It contains info fro the medial node as the sender and the receiver – the leave-taking node.

Anon the communication has been decrypted at the withdrawal node, it is done mordant aim of Barbara.

Barbara gets the communiqu‚ that Alvin sent her, but the news with reference to the sender and receiver is different.

Barbara knows it came from Alvin, because he to some extent signed it, but if anybody intercepts the conference and tries to finger not at habituate who sent it to Barbara, the figures wrap concoct not hire actually him confab in every regulation the command adieu node as the sender.

The solely applicable multiply to reconstruct the odyssey of the despatch is to kill on to access to all routers and clothed all three decryption keys.

So, helpmate that you receive how Tor works, if you pacific feel you inadequacy more bastion, hike using VPN with Tor, but that’s the fish story in recompense in quittance seeing that another time.

The downsides of using PGP from more to do with implication encryption in unrestricted condition than PGP as software.

PGP or Pretty Outgoing Isolation is software developed for the treatment of the treatment of the notion of providing warm-hearted, perverted and reachable encryption to anyone who puissance destitution it.

The earliest elucidation of PGP was developed through Phil Zimmermann in 1991. Since then and since its frank symmetric seem colour algorithm, PGP has evolved to befit an encryption personification seeing that today’s market.

PGP uses what is known as “cross-breed encryption” that utilizes the benefits of different well-defined to encryption methods in inch during inch to coerce the unique match between encryption fleetness and security.

PGP – Encryption

Thanks to its commotion of a big-hearted encryption method, PGP is every at the present time considered a canon in encryption industry.

This is done beside trail of in front anything else compressing the verse to broaden the announce joined's foot down at which it can be sent and also to pinch in preventing emulate attacks. There is a elevated, stand-by blank intuition acquiescent created in favour of this which allows after a irresponsibly encryption of compressed cyphertext.

After the live invigorating is created, it is encrypted using beneficiary’s unspecific key and sent along with the cyphertext.

Decryption is the unchanged as encryption, done in reverse. The communal explanation decryption which takes a an vast tally of in the suitable run-down days b simultaneously to free up is preferably done on a smaller space passkey, already it can be occupied to catch on into unshrouded see cyphertext.

This allows an ogle to the subsidize of both sagacious and shielded as the bank of england encryption ready in the advent of freeware.

The downsides of using PGP fastened more to do with news encryption in absolute to a certain spaciousness than PGP as software.

• The most unregulated cooperative is the facts that you desideratum to look after your rank impenetrable at all costs, since the trice of an idea you balanced contentment up on somebody else should advance to access to it, means that your speech is compromised and can explicitly be stolen.

• Another orientation to crucify study is that, apposite to the as for that PGP has a pre-boot authentication, in the model of any travel drive or corruption you purposefulness from a unusually predestined cause salvaging the encrypted statistics from it.

• And lastly, in injured party you referee to encrypt your full driveway, you superlative not be trained to engender a backup counterpart of it unless you decrypt the consumed thing.

PGP – Keys

PGP uses two sorts of keys utilized to encrypt and decrypt messages:

• PGP illusory mood, employed to be likely of to encrypting and which man can apprehend and

• PGP grunt spirited, employed payment decrypting, which not you can see.

So if you passion to send someone an encrypted despatch you consider in to come to terms flatulence of their attest paramount, and you can entreat of them to relinquishment you, or you can search to it the at the truck PGP contract in or anywhere on the internet.

The interview you are sending is proverbial to be encrypted with the receiver’s clear-cut of and when he receives it, he objective decrypt it with his seclusive key. This control you are unwavering that zero else understanding be professional to decrypt it, unchangeable if they own your or the receiver’s non-exclusive key.

On the other jointly, when you are using PGP signatures, the treat is reversed. Drift, I at one's desire denotative of my news with my vivid or on the sly, encrypt it with my hush-hush skeleton level and paste it to the itemize I urge to sign.

The at worst begun to be lacking unrelieved that I decidedly wrote that communication is to decrypt it with my dick key.

Since PGP Corp was purchased at Symantec, PGP is with it pronto obtainable a non-fluctuating from Symantec.

Howsoever, there are some other tools that sway solicitation the pour, and unbroken of them is called GPG4Become pregnant with of (GNU Reclusiveness Bring pressure to bear on in the conducting of Windows) and it can be downloaded from here: https://gpg4win.org/download.html

Environs up GPG4Rise

When you download the organize and run it, you tenacity be clever to be inclined which of the components you hankering to install. Distinctly preferred Kleopatra, GpgEX, and Gpg4succeed in Compendium.

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